bHLH

Description

Buck & Atchley (2003): The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of proteins is a group of functionally diverse transcription factors found in both plants and animals. These proteins evolved early in eukaryotic cells before the split of animals and plants, but appear to function in lsquoplant-specificrsquo or lsquoanimal-specificrsquo processes. In animals bHLH proteins are involved in regulation of a wide variety of essential developmental processes. On the contrary, bHLH proteins have not been extensively studied in plants. Those that have been characterized function in anthocyanin biosynthesis, phytochrome signaling, globulin expression, fruit dehiscence, carpel and epidermal development.

References:


1) Buck, MJ; Atchley, WR. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of plant basic helix-loop-helix proteins. J. Mol. Evol. 56(6):742-50 PubMed
2) Heim, MA; Jakoby, M; Werber, M; Martin, C; Weisshaar, B; Bailey, PC. 2003. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in plants: a genome-wide study of protein structure and functional diversity. Mol. Biol. Evol. 20(5):735-47 PubMed
3) Littlewood, TD; Evan, GI. 1995. Transcription factors 2: helix-loop-helix. Protein Profile 2(6):621-702 PubMed
4) Massari, ME; Murre, C. 2000. Helix-loop-helix proteins: regulators of transcription in eucaryotic organisms. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20(2):429-40 PubMed
5) Quattrocchio, F; Wing, JF; van der Woude, K; Mol, JN; Koes, R. 1998. Analysis of bHLH and MYB domain proteins: species-specific regulatory differences are caused by divergent evolution of target anthocyanin genes. Plant J. 13(4):475-88 PubMed


Summary

Name: bHLH
Class: TF
Number of species containing the TAP: 121
Number of available proteins: 12273

The colour code corresponds to the rules for the domains:

should be contained
should not be contained

Domain rules:


(Domain names are clickable)


Phylogenetic tree for Archeaplastida:

To view the tree click here.



TAP distribution:

The following table shows the distribution of bHLH over all species included in TAPscan. The values for e.g. a specific kingdom are shown in the tree below if you expand the tree for that kingdom.

Minimum Maximum Average Median Standard deviation
0380101.5810175.85

List of species containing bHLH sorted by kingdomcladesupergrouporderfamily:

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expand kingdom Archaeplastida (12494 proteins in 121 species)