Kawaoka et al. (2000): The AC-rich motif, Pal-box, is an important cis-acting element for gene expression involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. A cDNA clone (Ntlim1) encoding a Pal-box binding protein was isolated by Southwestern screening. The deduced amino acid sequence is highly similar to the members of the LIM protein family that contain a zinc finger motif. Moreover, Ntlim1 had a specific DNA binding ability and transiently activated the transcription of a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene driven by the Pal-box sequence in tobacco protoplasts. The transgenic tobacco plants with antisense Ntlim1 showed low levels of transcripts from some key phenylpropanoid pathway genes such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, hydroxycinnamate CoA ligase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Furthermore, a 27% reduction of lignin content was observed in the transgenic tobacco with antisense Ntlim1.


1) Eliasson, A; Gass, N; Mundel, C; Baltz, R; Kräuter, R; Evrard, JL; Steinmetz, A. 2000. Molecular and expression analysis of a LIM protein gene family from flowering plants. Mol. Gen. Genet. 264(3):257-67 PubMed
2) Kawaoka, A; Kaothien, P; Yoshida, K; Endo, S; Yamada, K; Ebinuma, H. 2000. Functional analysis of tobacco LIM protein Ntlim1 involved in lignin biosynthesis. Plant J. 22(4):289-301 PubMed


Name: LIM
Class: TF
Number of species containing the TAP: 108
Number of available proteins: 667

The colour code corresponds to the rules for the domains:

should be contained
should not be contained

Domain rules:

(Domain names are clickable)

Phylogenetic tree for Archeaplastida:

To view the tree click here.

TAP distribution:

The following table shows the distribution of LIM over all species included in TAPscan. The values for e.g. a specific kingdom are shown in the tree below if you expand the tree for that kingdom.

Minimum Maximum Average Median Standard deviation

List of species containing LIM sorted by kingdomcladesupergrouporderfamily:

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expand kingdom Archaeplastida (674 proteins in 108 species)
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A list of species letter codes included in the protein names can be found here (opens in new tab).