Bienz (2006): PHD proteins seem to be found universally in the nucleus, and their functions tend to lie in the control of chromatin or transcription. Increasing evidence indicates that PHD fingers bind to specific nuclear protein partners, for which they apparently use their loop 2 surface. Perhaps each PHD finger has its own cognate nuclear ligand, much like RING fingers have their cognate E2 ligases. No doubt the list of specific PHD finger ligands will grow, and the set of these ligands is likely to reveal whether PHD fingers have a common function in the nucleus.


1) Bienz, M. 2006. The PHD finger, a nuclear protein-interaction domain. Trends Biochem. Sci. 31(1):35-40 PubMed
2) Lang, D; Weiche, B; Timmerhaus, G; Richardt, S; Riano-Pachon, DM; Correa, LG; Reski, R; Mueller-Roeber, B; Rensing, SA. 2010. Genome-wide phylogenetic comparative analysis of plant transcriptional regulation: a timeline of loss, gain, expansion, and correlation with complexity. Genome Biol Evol. 2: 488-503 PubMed


Name: PHD
Class: TR
Number of species containing the TAP: 116
Number of available proteins: 3536

The colour code corresponds to the rules for the domains:

should be contained
should not be contained

Domain rules:

(Domain names are clickable)

Phylogenetic tree for Archeaplastida:

To view the tree click here.

TAP distribution:

The following table shows the distribution of PHD over all species included in TAPscan. The values for e.g. a specific kingdom are shown in the tree below if you expand the tree for that kingdom.

Minimum Maximum Average Median Standard deviation

List of species containing PHD sorted by kingdomcladesupergrouporderfamily:

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expand kingdom Archaeplastida (3616 proteins in 116 species)